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WHAT IS BRADIKARDIA ??

Your heart rate, or pulse, tells you how fast or slow your heart is beating. A slow heart rate can be normal, but it could be a sign of a problem. This page explains the difference between a normal slow heart rate and an abnormal one, and what to do. What is bradycardia? Bradycardia is a slower than normal heart rate. A normal adult resting heart rate is between 60–100 beats per minute (bpm). People who are physically very fit can have a heart rate as low as 40 bpm….

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Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

CABG is a surgical procedure in which one or more blocked coronary arteries are bypassed by a blood vessel graft to restore normal blood flow to the heart. These grafts usually come from the patient’s own arteries and veins located in the chest (thoracic), leg (saphenous) or arm (radial). The graft goes around the blocked artery (or arteries) to create new pathways for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart. The goals of the procedure are to relieve symptoms of coronary artery disease (including angina), enable the patient to resume…

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Ginecology Hearth Urology 

Heart Disease & Erectile Dysfunction

What is erectile dysfunction? Erectile dysfunction, or impotence, is the inability to achieve and sustain an erection suitable for sexual intercourse. The condition is not considered normal at any age. Premature ejaculation, infertility, or low sex drive are not the same as erectile dysfunction, though one or more of these conditions may be associated with it. How serious a problem is erectile dysfunction? It is estimated that erectile dysfunction affects about 1 in 10 adult males on a long-term basis. A much more common problem that affects most men at…

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Ischemic Heart Disease??

It is critical for patients who have a heart attack to get quick treatment. The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) set a 90-minute treatment goal for all patients who have a type of heart attack called ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The ACC/AHA treatment goal means the patient should have the blockage(s) causing the heart attack cleared within 90 minutes of arriving at the hospital. It is called door-to-balloon time because it refers to the time from the patient comes through the door to the…

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Ginecology Hearth Pregnancy 

Heart Disease and Pregnancy

Changes to the heart and blood vessels during pregnancy During pregnancy, changes occur to the heart and blood vessels. These changes put extra stress on a woman’s body and require the heart to work harder. The following changes are normal during pregnancy. They help ensure that your baby will get enough oxygen and nutrients. Increase in blood volume. During the first trimester, the amount of blood in the body increases by 40 to 50 percent and remains high. Increase in cardiac output. Cardiac output refers to the amount of blood…

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Abnormal Heart Rhythms (Arrhythmias)

What is an arrhythmia? An arrhythmia (also called dysrhythmia) is an irregular or abnormal heartbeat. What causes arrhythmias? Arrhythmias can be caused by: Coronary artery disease High blood pressure Changes in the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) Valve disorders Electrolyte imbalances in the blood, such as sodium or potassium Injury from a heart attack The healing process after heart surgery Other medical conditions What is my pulse? Your pulse indicates your heart rate, or the number of times your heart beats in one minute. Pulse rates vary from person to person. Your…

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Heart Attack??

A heart attack, or myocardial infarction (MI), is permanent damage to the heart muscle. “Myo” means muscle, “cardial” refers to the heart, and “infarction” means death of tissue due to lack of blood supply. A closer look inside your coronary arteries Your heart muscle needs to receive a good supply of blood at all times to function properly. Your heart muscle gets the blood it needs to do its job from the coronary arteries. What is coronary artery disease? Coronary artery disease is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary…

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Atrial Septal Defect??

What is an atrial septal defect (ASD)? An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the septum, or muscular wall, that separates the heart’s two upper chambers (atria). An ASD occurs when part of the atrial septum does not form properly. What causes atrial septal defects? About 10 percent of congenital heart problems are caused by specific genetic defects. Most congenital heart defects are likely due to maternal environmental factors combined with a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors include use of alcohol and street drugs, as well as diseases such…

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ATRIAL FIBRILLATION??

The heart pumps blood to the rest of the body. During each heart beat, the two upper chambers of the heart (atria) contract, followed by the two lower chambers (ventricles). These actions, when timed perfectly, allow for an efficient pump. The timing of the heart’s contractions is directed by the heart’s electrical system. The electrical impulse begins in the sinoatrial (SA node), located in the right atrium. Normally, the SA node adjusts the rate of impulses, depending on the person’s activity. For example, the SA node increases the rate of…

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What is bacterial endocarditis?

Infective endocarditis (IE) [also called bacterial endocarditis (BE), or depending on acuity acute or subacute or chronic bacterial endocarditis (SBE) ] occurs when germs (usually bacteria) enter the blood stream and attach to and attack the lining of the heart valves. Infective endocarditis causes growths (vegetations) on the valves, produces toxins and enzymes which kill and break down the tissue to cause holes on the valve, and spreads outside the heart and the blood vessels. The resulting complications are embolism of material from the vegetations, leaky valve, heart block and…

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