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Diabetes is one of the most common diseases of modern society. Worldwide it is considered that there are over 200 million people with diabetes, and diabetes according to the International Federation, this number will reach 350 million by 2025. And in Macedonia diabetes is very common disease from which around 120,000 people suffer.

Test for diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by elevated levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The level of blood glucose is controlled by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Task of insulin is to help move the glucose from the blood into cells, where it dissolves and gets energy.

People suffering from diabetes, regardless of type, have elevated glucose because their bodies can not transfer glucose into cells. Reasons for this may include:

Insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas;
Impaired cellular response to insulin;
Both reasons simultaneously.

There are three main types of diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes). It is an autoimmune disease with a possible genetic predisposition. It occurs at any age, but most often in children, teenagers or young adults. In this type of diabetes the pancreas produces little or no insulin creates.
Type 2 diabetes (insulin dependent diabetes). This is the most common form of diabetes. Mostly affects adults, but in recent years appears in teenagers and young adults due to excessive weight gain. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas often produces insulin, but the amount or is not sufficient for the organism or cells are resistant to insulin.
Gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood and occurs in any period of pregnancy in women who had not suffered from diabetes. This condition must be controlled because it can affect the normal growth and development of the baby. Approximately 2-4% of pregnant women are affected by gestational diabetes.

Symptoms and signs depending on the level of blood sugar, but people with type 2 diabetes despite elevated blood glucose, may initially have no symptoms. In patients with type 1 diabetes, symptoms usually manifest faster and more severe form.

Some of the signs and symptoms are:

Increased thirst;
Frequent urination ;
Increased appetite;
Unexplained weight loss;
fatigue ;
Blurred vision ;
Slow healing of wounds;
Mildly elevated blood pressure ;
Common infections (infections of the palate, skin, vagina, bladder);
The presence of ketones in the urine (ketones intercurrent products due to the breakdown of muscle and adipose tissue due to lack of insulin).

Risk factors for diabetes depends on the type of disease.

Risk factors for Type 1 diabetes:

Exposure to certain viral diseases;
Increased intake of vitamin D ;
Giving cow’s milk at an early age.
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes:

Reduced physical activity;
Diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in a family member – a parent, brother or sister;
Gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy;
Polycystic ovary syndrome ;
High blood pressure;
High cholesterol;
High triglycerides.
Risk factors for gestational diabetes:

Women older than 25 years;
Diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in a family member – a parent, brother or sister;
Gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy;
The birth of a baby overweight (more than 4kg);
Stillbirth unknown reasons;
Large weight gain during pregnancy.

Complications of diabetes develop gradually. The longer you have diabetes and the less control blood sugar, the greater the risk of complications. Over time, the complications of diabetes can lead to the loss of a certain ability or be fatal. Possible complications include:

Visual impairment;
Common skin infections;
Heart attack, stroke, abnormal movement of blood in the legs;
Nerve damage that occurs due to tingling, loss of feeling sensation, pain;
Increased risk of certain cancers.
Fortunately, diabetes is easily diagnosed, and proper education can be prevented and controlled.


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