|Fungal infections of female genital inflammation are caused by microorganisms, fungi.
Yeast infections can be unpleasant, but for healthy women who have no associated serious diseases, pose great danger.Frequently often appear during pregnancy, in patients with diabetes, as well as implementation of antibiotic therapy.
Infection of the vagina caused by a fungus called candid vaginal candidiasis, vaginal candidiasis or monilijaza.
Latin names for this infection: candidosis vaginalis, moniliasis vaginalis.
The most common cause of candidiasis is Candida albicans (in 85-90% of cases), Candida glabrat located in 5-8% of cases, and rarely (up to 4% of cases) causes include other species of this genus of fungi: Candida krusei , Candida famata, Candida tropicalis, Candida lusitaniae.
The genus Candida is very heterogeneous and there are about 200 different vidovi.Candida albicans is part of the normal (physiological) flora of the human organism that is normally present in a healthy body. Usually the candidate is not harmful to the body and lives on mucous membranes. It is located on the lining of the vagina in 35% of healthy women, the lining of the upper respiratory tract in 77% of healthy people, as well as the lining of the digestive system in 85% of people. The acidity of the vagina and the presence of other naturally present microorganisms maintain the number of candidates on the lining of the female genital organs for very small values. Source of infection usually own candidate, who normally are present in the lining of the vagina.
Although infection with Candida is not considered a sexually transmitted disease, but the cause can be transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person.
12-15% men in sexual intercourse with an infected woman will develop symptoms of infection such as burning, itching and rash on the penis. In men, candida causes: balanitis fasted or balanopostitit. Balanitis (balanitis) is an inflammation of the head (glans) of the penis, and fasted (postitis) is inflammation of the skin vnatareshniot set (prepucium), which protects the head of the penis. Often, the infection covered both structures, so it is often talked about fungal Balanoposthitis (balanopostitis).
Risk factors for the occurrence of candidiasis of female genitals
The change in the acidity of the vagina, as well as reducing the number of non-pathogenic microorganisms of the vaginal mucosa can induce inflammation. Certain conditions and diseases can lead to disruption of the acidic environment of the vagina. The most common conditions and diseases that can lead to the development of candidiasis are: menstruation, certain diseases (mainly diabetes), pregnancy, menopause, some antibiotics and hormonal contraceptives with estrogen and steroids. Moisture and irritation of the vagina also stimulates the growth of Candida.
Healthy women rarely suffer from diseases caused by Candida.In people who already have a disease or are exposed to certain drugs or interventions, candidate appear as causes of infection and able to cause severe disease. The severity and progression of the infection caused by these conditions, growing the number and severity of disorders of the patient.
Many diseases, encourage the development of candidiasis, such as for example diabetes, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, hipoadrenokorticizmot, granulomatous disease, AIDS, cystic fibrosis, hipogamaglobulinimijata, all types of cancer, especially malignant diseases of the blood.
Antibiotic therapy (especially therapy with tetracyclines) causes a change of the normal flora in humans, which in turn leads to an increase in the number of candidates and the occurrence of infection.
Excessive consumption of alcohol, wearing tight clothes, wearing nylon stockings and synthetic underwear and applying perfumes and perfumed cosmetics of the sexual organs disturb the normal balance of flora and promote the occurrence of candidiasis.
Frequency of infection
Inflammation of the vagina caused by Candida (Candida vaginitis / colpitis) is the most common infection of the female reproductive organs and has a high incidence. About 75% of sexually active women have candidiasis at least once in their lives, half of them have more than one infection in their lives and 10% of women have frequent infections ponovuvani.
Candidiasis is characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant itching in the area of the genitals, the appearance of increased secretion ie presence of belichest, thick vaginal discharge, with a distinctive sweet smell. Mucous membranes of the vagina and vulva are red, swollen and painful. Sexual intercourse can be painful. During mochanjeto may occur tingling, burning or pain because urine irritating the damaged area of the lining.
The diagnosis of candidiasis can be set in view of external genitalia and vaginal gynecological examination. A review show signs of infection: redness, swelling, damaged mucosa, the lining cracks, layers belichest secretion of mucous membranes of the vulva, vagina, and cervix. With bimanuelniot examination (examination with both hands), gynecologist assess the mobility and sensitivity of the uterus.
The definitive diagnosis of candidiasis is made on the basis of microscopic examination of secretions taken from the lining of the vulva, vagina or cervix. Microscopic examination of vaginal discharge gives a distinctive image, so you do not need additional tests.
In negative microscopic findings, taken swab of the vagina and sent for microbiological examination. By microbiological examination confirmed the presence of Candida and determines its service type.
Sometimes it does and Pap test, in order to exclude the possible existence of tumor lesions of the vagina and cervix. If the cervix looks suspicious, it is a colposcopy with biopsy.
Colposcopy diagnostic method showing the cervix with an increase of 6 to 40 times.
Colposcopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows the physician direct visualization of the lining of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope, which is a type of microscope with light doctor first coated the uterus (cervix) with acetic acid, and then use a tool similar to a microscope etc. colposcope that thoroughly examines the cervix. The doctor may then coat the cervix with a solution of iodine (the procedure is called Schiller test). Healthy cells appear brown, while abnormal are yellow colored. This procedure can be performed in ambulanski conditions .. Thus seen and changes can not be seen with the “naked eye”, ie no increase. Examination with a colposcope can be uncomfortable, but not painful and lasts 5-10 minutes.
If during colposcopy noticed suspicious lesions of the cervix should take material from the change (biopsy) in order to set a definite pathohistological diagnosis.
In one type of biopsy, the doctor uses an instrument for breaking away of small pieces of cervical tissue.
Another method which is used for biopsy etc. loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). In this procedure, the doctor used electrical wire to take a thin circular piece of tissue.
Both types of biopsy can be performed in the outpatient setting, using local anesthesia, ie in the biopsy, the doctor locally anesthetize the cervix. After the procedure it is slightly bleeding.
A detailed examination is required in women who have repeated infections, with poor or no response to treatment. Then review the whole body (physical examination of systems), laboratory analysis of blood and urine, which are seeking signs and symptoms of certain diseases and organ systems.
Treatment of candidiasis is implemented by antifungals drugs against fungi. In the treatment of fungal infections of the female genital organs apply antifungals derivatives of imidazole:clotrimazol (Canesten, Plimycol) and polienski antibiotics such as nistatin (Nystatin, Moronal), amfotericin (Ampho-Moronal) inatamicin (Pimafucin) in the form of vaginal tablets, creams or ointments. Treatment may last from 1-7 days.
In frequent, repeated fungal infections it is necessary to carry out treatment with antifungals in the form of oral tablets or capsules: flukonazol (Diflucan) or itrakonazol (Orungal).
During the presenting symptoms, and during therapy is recommended avoiding sexual relations, although this way infection is transmitted only in 10-15% of cases.
Combined with administration of antibiotics and antimycotics treated mixed infection by fungi and bacteria. Such a combination is oksitetraciklin + nistatin (Geonistin).
The first infection should be treated with the advice of the family doctor or gynecologist, and in repeated infections, if it is known that it was this infection, the woman alone can buy local antifungals in pharmacy. If the seven-day treatment fails, the woman should call the doctor to find the cause, and to reveal the possible existence of other conditions or diseases.
Frequent, ponovuvani fungal infections can be an indicator of the existence of certain diseases, so it is necessary to go to the doctor and to make further investigations. The presence of a sign of inflammation after treatment, or poor response to therapy can be the first signs of HIV infection.
Pregnant women, antifungals are given with caution, if at all given. Local treatment in pregnant women is carried out in a while and they often are controlled by a gynecologist.
Diet: increased consumption of plant foods (fresh fruit and vegetables), drinking yogurt in large quantities, avoiding carbohydrates in the diet.
Establishment of normal vaginal flora, after treatment with antifungal agents in the vagina may become special pads and means which recovers the population of bacteria normally present, Lactobacillus, and thus preventing re-infection by the applicant.
After conducting adequate treatment, signs of infection disappear completely. Repetition of infection or poor response to therapy, usually indicating an immunodeficiency, or the existence of certain diseases. In those cases, the patient is required to make further investigations.
To prevent infection with Candida is important to follow the following instructions: