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Infections 

WHAT IS PNEUMONIA???

Pneumonia or inflammation of the lung is a common disease of the lungs. The most common causes are bacteria and viruses. Sometimes it was an incurable disease with a high level of mortality. With the development of medicine, the mortality from this disease significantly reduced.

Pneumonia is a lung infection that can be caused by any organism known to cause infections in humans. These include bacteria, amoebas, viruses, fungi and parasites. In the United States, pneumonia is the sixth degree of disease occurrence which may result in a fatal outcome; each year 2 million Americans get pneumonia and 40,000-70,000 die from the disease. Pneumonia is also the most common infection fatal stage in some patients who are already internalized by another disease. In developing countries, pneumonia is linked with diarrhea as the most common cause of death. Even in cases not fatal, pneumonia is a significant economic burden on the health system. One study estimates that people in America who get pneumonia cost employers more than five times that amount to the amount of health insurance per worker.

Anatomy of lungs

To better understand the pneumonia, it is important to understand the basic anatomical features of the respiratory system. The human respiratory system starts from the nose and mouth, where the air is breathed in (inhaled) and out (expired). The air tube extending from the nose is called the nasopharynx. Tube carrying air breathed in through the nose called the oropharynx. These two pipes are joined into the trachea. Oropharynx also carries swallowed substances such as food, water and saliva that must pass through the esophagus and the stomach. The larynx is protected by a trap door called the epiglottis. Epiglottis prevents the ingested substances, and those who return back (in vomit) into the trachea and in the direction of the lungs. A useful method of the respiratory system is to imagine upside-down tree. The larynx with trachea, which is the trunk of the tree and thus the broadest part of the respiratory system. The trachea divides into two parts, left and right bronchi. Each of these branches of the bronchi more smaller bronchi that enter the lung tissue. Each bronchus divides into smaller tubes, to the terminal bronchioles. Air bags, in which there is an exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, are arranged at the ends of the bronchioles in the form of petals of wood. They are called alveoli. Lung tissue which has only a supporting function bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli is called lung.

Function Respiratory

The main function of the respiratory system is to provide oxygen, the most important source of energy for the body’s cells. Inspired air (air taken in the process of breathing) contains oxygen, which travels through the respiratory system to the alveoli. Oxygen moves out of the alveoli and through the circulation of blood is transferred to the body as part of the red blood cells. Oxygen in inspired air is exchanged in the alveoli of the waste product of human metabolism, carbon dioxide. The air you breathe contains a gas called carbon dioxide. The gas leaves the alveoli during expiration. To restate this exchange of gases, you breathe oxygen, exhale carbon dioxide

Defense mechanism of the respiratory system    Edit

The healthy human lung is sterile. They no resident bacteria or viruses (as is the case in the upper respiratory system and parts of the digestive system in where bacteria even in a healthy state). Throughout the respiratory system there are multiple safeguards. Their function is to stay away, pathogenic organisms from entering and leading to infection. The first line of defense hairs in the nostrils, which serves as a filter for larger particles. The epiglottis is a barrier that prevents food and other ingested substances from entering the trachea and then trachea. Sneezing and coughing, both caused by the presence of irritants to the respiratory system, help in removing such irritants from the respiratory system. The mucus produced by the respiratory system also serves to remove dust and infectious organisms. Tiny hair (cilia) from cells lining the respiratory system is also constantly zashtituvat system. They debris trapped in the mucus up and out of the respiratory system. This protective mechanism called the mucociliary escalator. Cells lining the respiratory tract produce several types of immune substances that protect against various organisms. Other cells (called macrophages) along the respiratory tract actually ingest and kill invading organisms. The organisms that cause pneumonia, usually fail to penetrate into the lungs by virtue of this defense mechanism. However, if the human body penetrate several different viruses at the same time, the usual efficiency defenses may be compromised. Infection can occur either by inhaling polluted air, or by inhalation of harmful organisms inhabiting the upper layers of air.

Conditions that lead to pneumonia

Despite exposure to large amounts of these harmful organisms, certain conditions under which an individual may lead to pneumonia. Certainly, the lack of normal anatomical structure may increase the risk of developing pneumonia. For example, there are some inherited defects in the cilia that effective protection. Smoking, whether it is active or passive smoke significantly impairs functioning of cilia, and the functioning of macrophages. Stroke, seizures, alcohol and many drugs can impair the functioning of the epiglottis. A weak epiglottis can also effectively prevents the penetration of ingested substances and / or regurgitated and possible contamination particles. Alcohol and drugs also interfere with normal cough reflex. Causative factors reduce the chance of full discharge of harmful elements from the respiratory tract. Viruses may interfere with ciliary function, allowing themselves or other harmful microorganisms (such as bacteria) to penetrate into the lower respiratory tract. One of those virus HIV (virus Unhappy Human Immunodeficiency), the cause of AIDS (syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency). In recent years, thanks to this strain of pneumonia cases increased dramatically. Because AIDS leads to weakening of the immune system in all fields in the body, a patient with AIDS is also susceptible to pneumonia. This includes some almost extinct types of pneumonia caused by parasites that are no longer able to develop the disease in a person with perfectly functional imuloshki system. The elderly mucociliary escalator is not working as effectively and comes to changes in the immune system. Because of this, in this age group is increasing the risk of pneumonia. Various chronic conditions predispose to infection with pneumonia. These include asthma, cystic fibrosis and neuromuscular diseases that can hinder closing the epiglottis. Esophageal disorders can cause spillage of substances from the stomach back into the esophagus. This increases the risk of inhaling these harmful substances from the stomach along with their resident bacteria entering the lungs. Diabetes, sickle cell anemia, lymphoma, leukemia and emphysema also increase the risk of pneumonia. Genetic factors also play a role in susceptibility to pneumonia. Certain changes in DNA appear can lead to pneumonia as a result of a complication of another disease. Pneumonia is the most common infectious complication in all types of surgery. Many drugs used during surgery may increase the risk of inhaling harmful particles disturb the cough reflex, and such air their lungs of the patient. Pain after surgery prevents the patient from breathing and coughing. Radiation in breast cancer increases the risk of pneumonia in some patients due to damage to the lung tissue.

The use of mechanical ventilators to help patients breathe more easily after surgery increases the risk of pneumonia. The death rate for patients who develop pneumonia is 46%.

Causes and symptoms

The list of causes of pneumonia is extensive and includes almost all organisms that can cause infection, viruses, bacteria and bacterial organisms, fungi and parasites (including certain worms). Different organisms causing disease in different age groups. Other features that increase the risk of pneumonia in each one:

Viruses cause pneumonia in children (especially respiratory sincitichen virus, parainfluenza and influenza viruses and adenovirus). Adults often infected with bacteria (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, influenza and hemofilius stafilokokis aureus). Pneumonia in older children and adolescents is caused by the bacteria particle micro plasma pneumoniae (often called “walking” pneumonia). Pneumocystis carinii is an extremely important cause of pneumonia in patients with immune problems, such as patients being treated for cancer with chemotherapy or AIDS patients. Classically a parasite, it seems to be more related to fungi. People who come into contact with the feces of birds, such as poultry workers may suffer from leukemia caused by the organism Chlamydia psitaci. Big, serious outbreak of pneumonia occurred in 1976, when many people attending an American Legion convention were infected by a previously unknown organism. Subsequently named Legionella pneumophila, which is now called “Legionnaires’ disease.” The organism was detected in devices for cooling air in the hotel at the convention.

symptoms

Frequency of symptoms [1]
symptom    frequency
cough   
79-91%
fatigue   
90%
fever   
71-75%
shortness of breath   
67-75%
sputum   
60-65%
Chest pain   
39-49%
Any patient who has a fever, cough, chest pain, can not breathe, and increased urge to breathe (number of breaths per minute) may be affected by pneumonia. Fever with shaking chill is even more suspicious. Many patients cough up thick mucus, commonly called sputum. These secretions are produced in the alveoli with infection or other inflammatory condition. They may often contain pus or blood. Severe pneumonia cases result in lack of oxygen in the body. In this blue appearance of the nail beds or lips (cyanosis). Symptoms caused by an external body, partly by causing turning immune response in the lungs. In other words, the immune system should fight off infections, kicks with such force that causes damage to lung tissue and makes it more susceptible to infection. The small blood vessels in the lungs (capillaries) become liquid and liquid rich in protein enters the alveoli. The patient is experiencing a shortage of oxygen, on account of the abundance of the liberated carbon dioxide. The patient breathes faster and faster, in an effort to bring in more oxygen and blow off more carbon dioxide. Mucus production is increased, capillaries may tinge the mucus with blood. Mucus further decrease of gas exchange in the lungs. Alveoli remain filled with liquid and debris of white blood cells produced to fight infection. Consolidation, a feature of bacterial pneumonia, which occurs when the alveoli are normally hollow air spaces in the lungs suddenly become solid due to quantities of fluid and debris. Viral pneumonia and mycoplasma pneumonia do not give rise to such an occurrence. These types of pneumonia the walls of the alveoli and lung.

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