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What is asthma?

Asthma is a chronic obstructive airway inflammation causing breathing problems. Characterized by inappropriate imunoloshi strong response and chronic inflammation of the tracheobronchial tree. The disease occurs in episodes, ie acute exacerbations of the disease change with periods when no symptoms of asthma. To asthma attacks comes in worsening of inflammation, usually because the immediate surroundings present some irritating or provocative factor.

Causes

Asthma can be triggered by environmental and hereditary factors. Hereditary factors can play an important role in the occurrence of asthma, but this does not mean that a child who comes from a family with a history of asthma, will definitely develop asthma symptoms.

It is inherited tendency toward the disease and not the disease itself.



Asthma usually first occurs in childhood and is more prevalent in boys than in girls. Atopy (genetic tendency of the immune system to produce antibodies to common allergens, leading to symptoms of allergies) and / or allergies in the family are the biggest risk factors for developing the disease in children. Atopic dermatitis (eczema) and allergic rhinitis (peludna fever) can serve as key risk indicators of developing asthma in infants and young children.

All types of asthma are allergic nor any allergies lead to asthma. Asthma can occur in different ways. However, the underlying mechanism that leads to the symptoms of asthma is complex immunological reaction to our respiratory systems of various allergens in their environment, which develops an inflammatory reaction and release chemical mediators of inflammation.

Types of asthma

Allergic asthma – allergens and inflammatory factors – Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (the main allergen in the home straight and linen)

hair, feathers and animal waste epithelial
pollen from trees, grasses and weeds
mold
Non-allergic asthma – allergens and provocative factors:

secondhand smoke
cleaners household
perfumes and fragrances
indoor and outdoor air pollutants
Occupational asthma – allergens and inflammatory factors – factors that accelerate the development of asthma. These include exposure to fumes, chemicals, resins, powders, insecticides, smoke and other substances in the workplace.

Asthma caused by physical activity – allergens and inflammatory factors – Exercises involving inhalation of cold and dry air (running in winter) can lead to asthma caused by physical activity.

Asthma caused by aspirin (or supplements) – allergens and inflammatory factors – considerable number of people sensitive to nonsteroidal anti-drugs, preservatives (sulphites tatrazine) and other nutritional supplements.

symptoms

After exposure to allergens or risk factors for asthma, symptoms usually appear suddenly or in rare cases develop over several hours or days. Classic symptoms of asthma include: coughing, wheezing, playing in the bronchi and lungs emphasized prolonged deflation. Prior to the attack of asthma, may cause irritation of the nose and throat. The attacks usually begin with a difficult and rapid breathing. As it worsens, the muscles involved in breathing becoming more active. Neck muscles constrict, and speech becomes pootezhnat and disabled. End attack is often marked by coughing and expectoration of thick mucus. Asthma is usually worse at night, and the attacks occur between 2 and 4 am

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