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Cancer 

Lung cancer

Lung cancer

 

Lung cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung . If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lungs to other parts of the body, through a process that is called metastasis . Most cancers that begin in the lungs, called primary lung cancers are carcinomas derived from epithelial cells. The main division of lung cancer is small cell lung cancer ( English : small cell lung carcinoma ) and nesitnokletochen lung cancer (non-small cell lung carcinoma) . The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term smoking tobacco .  Non-smokers occupy 15% of cases of cancer,  and in these cases the disease is often attributed to a combination of genetic factors ,  exposure to radon ,  asbestos  and air pollution ,  including passive smoking . The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood ), weight loss and lack of air.  Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiography and computed tomography . The diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy .  It is usually performed by bronchoscopy or biopsy guided by computed tomography. Treatment and prognosis depend upon the histological type of cancer, the stage (extent of spread) and general condition of the patient. In common forms of treatment include surgery , chemotherapy and radiotherapy . Krupnokletochniot cancer is sometimes treated with surgery, while small cell usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiation therapy.  Survival depends on the stage, general health and other factors. Generally, in the United States, 15% of people with lung cancer survive five years after diagnosis.  Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-associated mortality among men and women and is responsible for 1.38 million deaths annually since 2008.  classification Edit Lung cancer is classified according to the histological type This classification has important implications for clinical management and prognosis of the disease. The vast majority of lung cancers are carcinomas – malignant tumors that originate from epithelial cells . Lung cancers are categorized by size and appearance of the malignant cells seen by a pathologist under a microscope . The two general classes nesitnokletochen ( non-small cell ) and small cell ( small cell ) carcinoma belodrobren.  adenocarcinoma bronchoalveolar carcinoma Skvamocelularen cancer Krupnokletochen cancer small cell carcinoma Nesitnokletochen lung cancer Devices Incidence of different types of lung cancer, adjusted for age  histological type Incidence (per 100,000 per year) all types 66.9 adenocarcinoma 22.1 squamous cell carcinoma 14.4 small cell carcinoma 9.8 Micrograph of squamous cell carcinoma , nesitnokletochen type of cancer. Pap staining . There are three major subtypes: adenocarcinoma , squamous cell carcinoma and krupnokletochen lung cancer .  Approximately 40% of lung cancers are adenocarcinomas. This type of tumor usually originates in the peripheral lung tissues.  Most cases of adenocarcinoma associated with smoking; however, among people who have smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lives ( “never smoked”)  adenocarcinoma is the most common form of lung cancer.  A subtype of adenocarcinoma, bronchoalveolar carcinoma , is more common in women never smoked and can have different responses to treatment. [ Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 30% of lung cancer. They usually appear near the large airways. In the middle of this tumor is often necrosis and gaps.  About 9% of lung cancers are carcinomas krupnokletochni. They are called so because tumor cells are large, with many cytoplasm , is a big core and designated nucleoli .  Small cell lung cancer Devices Small cell lung carcinoma (microscopic examination of material from the basic (core) fine-needle biopsy). In small cell lung cancer cells contain dense neurosecretory granules ( vesicles containing neuroendocrine hormones ) which in the tumor causing association with endocrine / paraneoplastic syndrome.  Most cases occur in the larger airways (primary and secondary bronchi ). these tumors grow quickly and spread early in the disease. 60-70% have metastatic disease at the time of detection. This type of lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking.  other Devices Four main histological subtypes are recognized, although some cancers may include a combination of different subtypes.  In rare subtypes include gland tumors , carcinoid and undifferentiated carcinomas. Metastasis Devices The lungs are often a place for metastasis from tumors in other parts of the body. These tumors are called secondary and classified according to the place of origin; for example, breast cancer that has spread to the lungs are referred to as metastatic cancer of the breast . Metastases often have a characteristic round appearance on chest radiograph.  Typical

 

 

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