In 1895, the German professor Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen) detects X rays originally called x-rays because of their unknown nature. With their help medicine penetrates deep into the human body and overcome myriad diseases. It is one of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century, which Wilhelm Roentgen got the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
What actually x-ray?
X-rays obtained in the X-ray tube, which is part of every X-ray machine. They are kind of electromagnetic waves, such as light and radio waves are not recorded by the human senses (do not see or hear), but have ionizing activity . Ionizing radiation has the ability, passing through living matter, cause ionization (or turning electropositive particles electrically negative) and thus cause harmful effects on living functions of tissues and organs.
When such X-rays pass through the human body, some of them are absorbed, but not equally everywhere – depends on what tissue or organ in question. Strongly absorbed bone and bone tissue, the X-ray image are seen as the clearest shade less visible muscle and adipose tissue, and least in the lungs or other tissues and areas with high levels of air (tissues that are seen as enlightenment). Here is important to point out that in the shadow rentgenologijata think when there are white crisp images, and enlightenment where there is dark and black areas. Bodhi is because it is, however tissues that absorb x-rays and pass freely through the tissue.
The image of X-rays can get the X-ray film. That method is known as roentgenographs (X + γράφω / grafo Greek – writing). Besides the picture may be a radiologist and a monitor in real time to monitor changes in the field is reflected. That method is called rentgenoskopija . Another method is known X-ray computer tomography , very expensive and indispensable test method in many cases. There, with the help of computer gets a detailed picture of the sections of the body. Depending on what the sections in question, ie how they are made – distinguish computer axial tomography or spinal.
What used X-rays?
X-rays are most widely used for diagnosis , with the 3 methods above. So to detect and monitor various diseases of various organs and systems. Can be used for screening , which is a massive examination of healthy people so early detection and prevention of certain diseases, such as tuberculosis and breast cancer. They can be used as radiotherapy , for the treatment of certain malignancies. Rentgenoskopijata is indispensable tool for visualizing the Invasive Cardiology at cardiac angiography, in extracorporeal lithotripsy in urology and also endocrinology and in the determination of bone density Osteodensitometry known apparatus in order to detect osteoporosis.
Is there a risk in X-ray examination?
The risks of excessive irradiation with ionizing rays such as X-ray, primarily the development of cancer and cancer tissue degeneration. But is it really dangerous x-ray? Radiation always attended in human existence. Each of us is born and lives in the natural radiation background . As a source of natural radiation could mention cosmic rays, radioactive elements from soil, building materials, air, water, food and even our body. The man made sources of foreground radiation, such as X-ray tubes, nuclear reactors and others. used in medicine, energy and so on.
Jonizaciskata radiation to the authorities of the human body energy. The energy delivered per unit mass is called dose. The higher the risk at higher doses of radiation. In X-trials used very low doses of radiation 10,000 times smaller than the dose required to develop radiation sickness or wounds in the skin. It considered when x trials has minimal risk of increasing the original natural likely sources of cancer. The risk depends on the place and the area that is radiated.
Every third person statistically ill with cancer and even never has been made roentgenographs. It is estimated that the testing of bones, skull and lungs can cause cancer of 1 in 1 million patients. The same risk of death exists at 100 km journey by car, 1000 km journey by plane or simply smoking 1-3 cigarettes a day.
The famous Latin sentence, doctors: Primum non nocere – first of all not to do damage (meaning health) is valid to this day. Of particular importance is the assessment of whether the doctor to make X-ray image in order to detect disease or condition, or it can be proven without any use of ionisation methods of diagnosis (echography or magnetic resonance computed tomography). But in some cases, the discovering of certain diseases, X-ray diagnostics is unrivaled and often in medicine the doctor is put in a position to choose between “two evils” of which chooses the “lesser evil.”